A better permutation-equivariance property for set prediction.

[arxiv] [code] [video] [summary] [poster]

Most set prediction models in deep learning use set-equivariant operations, but they actually operate on multisets. We show that set-equivariant functions cannot represent certain functions on multisets, so we introduce the more appropriate notion of multiset-equivariance. We identify that the existing Deep Set Prediction Network (DSPN) can be multiset-equivariant without being hindered by set-equivariance and improve it with approximate implicit differentiation, allowing for better optimization while being faster and saving memory. In a range of toy experiments, we show that the perspective of multiset-equivariance is beneficial and that our changes to DSPN achieve better results in most cases. On CLEVR object property prediction, we substantially improve over the state-of-the-art Slot Attention from 8% to 77% in one of the strictest evaluation metrics because of the benefits made possible by implicit differentiation.

    author        = {Zhang, Yan and Zhang, David W and Lacoste-Julien, Simon and Burghouts, Gertjan J and Snoek, Cees GM},
    title         = {Multiset-Equivariant Set Prediction with Approximate Implicit Differentiation},
    booktitle     = {International Conference on Learning Representations},
    year          = {2022},
    eprint        = {2111.12193},
    url           = {https://openreview.net/forum?id=5K7RRqZEjoS}